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BIO 103 Final Exam

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BIO 103 Final Exam

BIO 103 Final Exam

BIO103

BIO 103 Final Exam

Question 1. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

  1. Make observations and ask a question
  2. Analyze  the data
  3. Develop a hypothesis
  4. Share the results with other scientists
  5. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis

a)    I>II > III > IV > V

b)    III > I > V > II > IV

c)    V> IV > III > II > I

d)    I> III > V >II > IV

e)    V > II > I > III > IV

Question 2. You have formulated a hypothesis: “Apples contain more vitamin C than oranges.”

To test your hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 apples from trees that were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental conditions (temperature, rain, sunlight). This experiment was conducted twice. The control in the experiment is__________________________________.

a)    type of soil, temperature, amount of rain and sunlight in the orchard

b)    vitamin C levels

c)    oranges

d)    apples

e)    a large sample size and repeated experiment

 ***Use the following information to answer questions 3, 4,5 & 6 below***:

A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering cholesterol levels in a group of men between the ages of 50 and 70 years old. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results:  One group of 150 men took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (three men from this group dropped out of the study).  Another group of  150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study).

Question 3. Which of the following is the best hypothesis for this experiment?

a)    Will drug X lower cholesterol levels in men between the age of 50 and 70 years?

b)    Drug X will lower cholesterol levels in men.

c)    Since high cholesterol levels significantly increases several health risks for men, drug X is most likely beneficial.

d)    Men between the age of 50 and 70 years will have reduced cholesterol levels if they take drug X over a 3 week period.

e)    There is no significant difference in cholesterol levels between men that take drug X and those that don’t take it.

Question 4. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?

a)    The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b)    The number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment

c)    The group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X

d)    The group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X

e)    The number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

Question 5. Which of the following is a dependent variable in this experiment?

a)    The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b)    Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c)    The average age of the participants

d)    Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e)    Blood pressure

Question 6. Which of the following is an independent variable in this experiment?

a)    The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b)    Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c)    The average age of the participants

d)    Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e)    Blood pressure

Question 7. A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the cell cycle does it inhibit cell division?

a)    Metaphase

b)    S phase

c)    G1

d)    Cytokinesis

e)    Prophas

Question 8. A researcher planted seeds from four types of tomatoes (Roma, Cherry, Big Boy and Early Girl) in a greenhouse to determine which type of tomato produce the largest number of tomatoes per plant. The plants were grown for 70 days under the same temperature and light conditions. The average results for 20 plants of each type are shown below.   Choose the data set that demonstrates that Cherry tomatoes produce the largest number of tomatoes per plant.

a)    Roma: 20 tomatoes, Cherry: 18 tomatoes, Big Boy: 30 tomatoes, Early Girl: 10 tomatoes

b)    Roma: 1.8lbs, Cherry: 2.8lbs, Big Boy: 2.7lbs, Early Girl: 1.0 lbs

c)    Roma: 3 cm, Cherry: 1 cm, Big Boy: 10cm, Early Girl: 7 cm

d)    Roma: 2 cm, Cherry: 10 cm, Big Boy: 7 cm, Early Girl: 6 cm

e)    Roma: 23 tomatoes, Cherry: 28 tomatoes, Big Boy: 10 tomatoes, Early Girl: 27 tomatoes

Question 9. The majority of climate scientists believe that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.

a)    an enhancement of the greenhouse effect

b)    a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy

c)    a thinning of the ozone layer

d)    a melting of the polar ice caps

e)    an increase in solar radiation

Question 10. Based on the following phylogenetic tree, which of the following conclusions are *NOT* correct?  Each letter represents a hypothetical species.

a)    A and E share a common ancestor

b)    B is one of A’s ancestors

c)    E and D are more closely related to each other than to C

d)    C is more closely related to E than to B

e)    A and B are closely related

Question 11. You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your body?

a)    You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans.

b)    You get thirstier because of osmosis.

c)    Salt diffuses into your cells, water follows, your cells start to expand and you feel bloated.

d)    Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel much better.

e)    You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable membranes of your cells.

Question 12. You are spraying your garden with a pesticide and you accidentally swallow a small amount. You read on the package that this pesticide inhibits ATP synthase. Should you be worried?

a)    ATP synthase is part of the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis; this pesticide will therefore not affect humans. So don’t worry!

b)    ATP synthase is an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle so all animals, humans included, will be affected. Call the doctor.

c)    ATP synthase found in the pesticide is a very toxic compound. Call the doctor.

d)    ATP synthase is involved in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Call the doctor.

e)    ATP synthase inhibitors will not affect humans, but there might be other toxic ingredients in the pesticide, so it is best to call the doctor to be on the safe side.

Question 13. In the following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?

12 H20 + 6 CO2     ->     1 glucose molecule + 6 O2

a)    Substrate

b)    Product

c)    Enzyme

d)    Activation factor

e)    Independent variable

Question 14. Which of the following is NOT a feature of DNA?

a)    Adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T)

b)    Complimentary strands are anti-parallel, running in opposite directions

c)    Complimentary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups

d)    Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds

e)    All of the above are features of DNA

Question 15. A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass the gene on to _______________________.

a)    all of his daughters

b)    half of his daughters

c)    all of his sons

d)    half of his sons

e)    all of his children

Question 16. A double-stranded DNA molecule that has 22% guanine will have __________.

a)    28% thymine

b)    22% cytosine

c)    44% adenine

d)    26% uracil

e)    both A and B are correct

Question 17. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?

a)    A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates

b)    A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts the lower branches

c)    A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates

d)    A pigeon learns than when its keeper comes near it will be fed

e)    All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection

Question 18. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this information?

a)    They share a recent common ancestor

b)    They are both adapted to environments low in light

c)    The ability to produce light is an ancient trait

d)    They are found in the same location

e)    All of the above

Question 19. You observe the following outside your window:  A grasshopper is munching away on a leaf when a hawk swoops down and eats the grasshopper. What is the grasshopper in this situation?

a)    Secondary consumer

b)    Prey

c)    Herbivore

d)    Predator

e)    Both b, c and d

Question 20. Which of the following statements is *NOT* true?

a)    The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis are haploid.

b)    Meiosis and meiosis both starts with one cell, but meiosis ends with four and mitosis with two.

c)    Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.

d)    Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.

e)    Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.

Question 21. In the scientific method, a hypothesis ____________.

a)    is a statement of fact

b)    is a proposed explanation based on observations

c)    is usually proven to be correct

d)    can only be tested once

e)    all of the above

Question 22. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel. Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?

a)    In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way.  In the control group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

b)    In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way.  In the experimental group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

c)    In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered.  In the control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.

d)    In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.

e)    Experimental and control group experiments are identical and run in parallel to get repeatable results.

Question 23. Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”?

a)    A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws

b)    A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large body of observations and experiments

c)    A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared unrelated

d)    A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural phenomena

e)    All of the above

Question 24. You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed germination. To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds are placed in light with warm temperatures and adequate moisture.  Another set of identical seeds are placed in the dark under the same set of conditions.  The control in the experiment is ___________.

a)    seeds in the dark

b)    seeds in the light

c)    warm temperature

d)    adequate moisture

e)    germination rate

Question 25. The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics.  What is the most likely scientific explanation?

a)    The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics

b)    The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics

c)    Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted

d)    The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria

e)    Both b and d

Question 26. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth?

a)    Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2

b)    Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2

c)    Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O

d)    Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2

Question 27. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. All cells have a power plant, the mitochondrion.  Plant cells have an additional “reactor” for the production of usable energy. It is called the ________.

a)    golgi body

b)    rough endoplasmic reticulum

c)    central vacuole

d)    vesicle

e)    chloroplast

Question 28. What is biology?

a)    The study of life

b)    The study of the environment

c)    The study of DNA

d)    The study of genetics

e)    The study of the earth

Question 29. Which of the following groups would contain the largest number of organisms?

a)    class

b)    order

c)    species

d)    kingdom

e)    family

Question 30. All living organisms _____________.

a)    reproduce

b)    evolve

c)    respond to environmental stimuli

d)    have all three characteristics

Question 31. Meiosis results in ______________.

a)    2 haploid daughter cells

b)    2 diploid daughter cells

c)    4 haploid daughter cells

d)    4 diploid daughter cells

e)    6 haploid daughter cells

Question 32. The plasma membrane __________________.

a)    is the control center of the cell

b)    functions in protein synthesis

c)    functions in fat synthesis

d)    regulates the passage of material into and out of the cell

Question 33. In a comparison of two solutions, the solution with the higher solute concentration is _________________.

a)    dynamic

b)    hypertonic

c)    hypotonic

d)    isotonic

e)    osmotic

Question 34. Catalase is an enzyme found in plant and animal cells.  Hydrogen peroxide is a harmful substance found in cells. Catalase causes hydrogen peroxide to breakdown into water and oxygen.  What type of molecule is catalase?

a)    A lipid

b)    A protein

c)    A nucleic acid

d)    A carbohydrate

e)    A sugar

Question 35. The pigment molecule that catches the energy of the sunlight is ____________.

a)    chlorophyll

b)    pyruvic acid

c)    glucose

d)    carbon dioxide

Question 36. The energy of the sun is converted into usable energy for the cell in the form of _________.

a)    ADP

b)    ATP

c)    CO2

d)    glucose

Question 37. The innermost electron shell of an atom holds a maximum of ______ electrons.

a)    2

b)    4

c)    6

d)    8

e)    10

Question 38. The pH of the fluid in your stomach is around pH 2. The fluid is ____________.

a)    acidic

b)    basic

c)    neutral

Question 39. The chemical bond that results in the transfer of electrons is a _______ bond.

a)    hydrogen

b)    covalent

c)    polar

d)    ionic

Question 40. If an acid is added to water, the pH will ______________.

a)    decrease

b)    stay the same

c)    increase

d)    sometimes increase and sometimes decrease

e)    become neutral

Question 41. Organisms in the Plantae kingdom are ____________.

a)    multi-cellular and autotrophic

b)    multi-cellular and heterotrophic

c)    unicellular and autotrophic

d)    unicellular and heterotrophic

e)    both unicellular and multi-cellular

Question 42. You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well-defined nucleus. You conclude the cell must be a(n) _____________ cell.

a)    prokaryotic

b)    eukaryotic

c)    plant

d)    animal

Question 43. The smallest unit of life is the _________.

a)    cell

b)    organelle

c)    macromolecule

d)    atom

Question 44. A dichotomous key is used to ___________________.

a)    locate organisms

b)    identify organisms

c)    divide organisms

d)    interbreed species

e)    describe plants

Question 45. The control in an experiment _______________________________________.

a)    reduces the experimental errors

b)    minimizes experimental inaccuracy

c)    allows standard comparison for the experimental group

d)    is an additional replicate for statistical purposes

e)    makes the experiment invalid

Question 46. The hydrophilic surface of a membrane faces:

a) The interior of the cell

b) The interior of the membrane

c) The exterior of the cell
d) Both a) and b) are correct

e) Both a) and c) are correct

Question 47. Plant cell walls are made of:

a) Lipids

b) Cellulose

c) Proteins

d) Chitin

e) Glycogen

Question 48. Cyanobacteria possess:

a) A nucleus

b) Chlorophyll

c) A flagellum

d) No ribosomes

e) All of the above are true

Question 49. The following can be found on the surface of bacteria:

a) A slime layer (capsule)

b) Fimbriae

c) Both a) and b) are true

d) Both a) and b) are false

Question 50. Energy is defined as:

a) ability to work

b) ability to sleep

c) ability to cook

d) ability to do nothing

e) all of the above are correct

Question 51. What can be found in only eukaryotic cells?

a) ribosomes

b) plasma membrane

c) centrioles

d) DNA
e) all of the above are true

Question 52. What can be found in only prokaryotic cells?

a) ribosomes

b) plasma membrane

c) cell wall

d) DNA

e) nucleoid

Question 53. A nucleus would not be found in:

a) Fungi

b) Cyanobacteria

c) Humans

d) Tulips

e) fish

Question 54. The presence of a nucleus, lysosome, and chlorophyll indicates the cell is a:

a) prokaryote

b) plant

c) animal

d) bacteria

e) either plant or animal

Question 55. The word that is defined by “The ability of an organism to maintain relatively constant internal conditions” is:

a) evolution

b) homeostasis

c) metabolism

d) energy

e) behavior

Question 56. The electrons of an atom are:

A. always equal to the number of neutrons in an atom

B. found in the nucleus
C. used to determine atomic number

D. positively charged
E. moving in pathways called orbitals.

Question 57. All of the following pertain to the atom except it:

A. has 6 protons

B. has 6 electrons

C. has 14 neutrons
D. is an isotope of carbon

E. has a mass number of 14

Question 58. The subatomic particles that surround the nucleus are the:

A. electrons

B. protons

C. neutrons

D. protons and neutrons

E. protons and electrons

Question 59. Which of the following is not one of water’s life supporting properties?

A. Cohesive behavior

B. Ability to moderate temperature

C. Expansion upon freezing

D. Versatility as a solvent
E. All the above are correct

Question 60. Cations are:

A. subatomic particles

B. atoms that have gained electrons
C. radioactive isotopes

D. capable of forming ionic bonds with anions
E. atoms without protons

Question 61. What is the maximum number of electrons in the second energy shell of an atom?

A. 2

B. 4

C. 8

D. 18

E. 32

Question 62. What would be the valence number of electrons in the sulfur atom?

A. 2

B. 6

C. 8

D. 16

E. 32

Question 63. An acid:

A. is neutral

B. releases hydroxide ions in solution

C. releases hydrogen ions in solution

D. basic

E. non-polar

Question 64. Which term does not belong in this list?

A. Lactic acid

B. Vinegar (pH 3)

C. Hydrogen ion donor
D. pH 10

E. Acidic

Question 65. A solution of pH 3 compared to a solution of pH 9

A. is more basic

B. has no OH ions

C. has more H+ ions
D. None of the above is correct

E. All of the choices are correct.

Question 66. The building blocks of an enzyme are:

A. nucleotides

B. glycerol and fatty acids

C. monosaccharides

D. phosphate, glycerol, fatty acids

E. amino acids

Question 67. All of the following are monosaccharides except

A. glucose

B. glycogen

C. fructose
D. ribose

E. deoxyribose

Question 68. All of the following are lipids except

A. cholesterol

B. starch

C. phospholipid
D. wax

E. triglyceride

Question 69. A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms will have _____ hydrogen atoms and _____ oxygen atoms

A. 10, 5

B. 5, 10

C. 5, 5

D. 10, 10

E. 2, 1

Question 70. One nucleotide contains

A. one phosphate

B. one pentose

C. one nitrogen base

D. All of the choices are correct

E. None of the choices are correct

Question 71. Which of the following would have glycosidic bonds?

A. Triglycerides

B. Monosaccharides

C. Polypeptides

D. Polysaccharides

E. ATP

Question 72. All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called:

A. catabolism

B. redox reactions

C. phosphorylation
D. metabolism

E. cellular respiration

Question 73. All of the following pertain to glycolysis except it:

A. occurs without oxygen

B. ends with formation of pyruvic acid
C. occurs during fermentation

D. it produces glucose
E. involves reduction of NAD

Question 74. The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins:

A. glycolysis

B. electron transport system
C. Krebs cycle

D. fermentation
E. oxidative phosphorylation

Question 75. Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called:

A. anabolism

B. phosphorylation

C. fermentation
D. exergonic

E. glycolysis

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MATCHING SECTION #1

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Matching section (1 and 2) is worth 20 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

Term or Concept 

  1. Water molecule                       h
  2. Carbon                                    e
  3. Homeostasis                           i
  4. Ionic Bonding                          b
  5. Covalent Bonding                   c
  6. Carbohydrate                          a
  7. Enzyme                                   f
  8. Acid                                         j
  9. Base                                        g
  10. Lipid                                         d

Definition/Association

  1. energy source
  2. two atoms sharing electrons
  3. electron donated/received
  4. hydrophobic
  5. element found in all living organisms
  6. catalyst
  7. OH> H+
  8. polar
  9. characteristic of all living organisms
  10. H+> OH

MATCHING SECTION #2

Term or Concept

  1. Ribosome                                                        d
  2. Mitochondria                                                   g
  3. Nucleus                                                           c
  4. Golgi apparatus                                               a
  5. Smooth Endoplasmatic Reticulum                 f
  6. Membrane                                                      j
  7. Cell Wall                                                          e
  8. Lysosome                                                       b
  9. Chloroplast                                                      i
  10. Cilia                                                                 h

Definition or Association

  1. packaging and transport
  2. digestion
  3. genetic material storage
  4. protein assembly
  5. structural support
  6. lipid production
  7. glucose breakdown
  8. movement
  9. oxygen production
  10. contain transport proteins and receptors

ESSAY SECTION

Complete all of the questions in this Essay Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points. The total points for this section is35 points.  Use complete sentences and cite resources.  Make sure you provide a comprehensive answer for full credit. 

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

1. You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious about the possible microbes that might live there. After looking at several slides that held drops of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: One kind was very small and had no separate internal structures; the other kind was much larger, and it contained several kinds of internal structures that were physically different from each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their overall similarities and differences.

The first cell that is described is more than likely going to be a basic plant cell like an algae or similar cell. The second cell that is described will more than likely be an animal cell, it could perhaps be a skin cell of a fish or frog. There are many differences between these two cells, but there are also many similarities. One of the seemingly very big differences is the irregular shape of the larger animal cell; it also seems to not have a cell wall. Some of the similarities are things like the cytoplasm, ER, Ribosomes, and Mitochondria.

2. PKU (phenylketonuria) is an enzyme deficiency disease that only develops in individuals who are homozygous recessive for that gene. An individual with PKU has parents that do not have this disease. What is the parents’ genotype for the gene responsible for PKU? What is the probability that they may have another child with PKU? How many future children of the affected individual will be carriers? Explain your answers.

Heterozygous Dominant

One child will be a non carrier, one in four will have PKU and 2 children will carry the gene without expression of the disease. This can be viewed in a basic pungent square.

R         r

R         RR       Rr

r           Rr        rr

3. Humans share 99% of their genes with chimpanzees, 90% with mice, 50% with fruit flies, and 37% with celery. Please explain the evolutionary significance of these data.

Given an evolutionist theory that we all evolved from the first form of life it would make sense that we would all share some type of DNA similarities. If Humans are simply just mice which have evolved, we must still have some of the mouse’s DNA. It would only make sense that as you progress down the chain that you would find similarities between the two parties as you go down the line. If Fruit flies started before mice, then it would make sense for them to share a large percentage of their DNA together.

4. Describe the major land biome where you live. How have human activities changed the landscape and how has this affected native species? Include specific examples.

Chaparral biome (Southern Calfornia)(my home). Native vegetation would be “scrub brush” and “scrub oak.” Most of the wilderness has been replaced with “urban savanna” — pavement with some lawns and whatever people have in their yards. Some of the not-yet-urbanized areas have been replaced with nonnative grass, and maintained that way by fires. There are also long time vacant lots. Most of these have eucalyptus (from Australia) and palm trees (that are also not native here).Introduced animal species have displaced many native animal species. The introduced species include people, dogs, cats, red-masked Conures, Argentine ants, peacocks The displaced include birds of prey, bats, deer, bears, cougars. Some animals can coexist with people. These include coyotes, opossums, skunks, pocket gophers.

The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs.  The large majority of the fish in this population are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the production of the red pigment; as a result these individual fish are white. The temperature of the ocean where these fish live gets warmer and warmer over a 10 year period, and as a result the coral is bleached and turns white. Use what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event may have affected the evolution this fish population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatures on the fish). Include the following terms in your explanation: differential reproduction, beneficial trait, allele frequency, selection pressure, evolution.

5. Alternative

At the beginning of the spring, Dr. Betty Burner notices that there is an equal distribution of long and short stemmed the dandelions in her backyard.  By the end of the summer she notices that the majority of the dandelions have short stems.  This observation is an example of what biological principle?  Develop a hypothesis as to why there was an increase in the proportion of the short stemmed dandelions within the population.

The principal has to do with biological natural selection. The plants that have the best environment are the plants that will thrive. Perhaps the explanation is that in the beginning of the spring Dr. Betty Burner wasn’t mowing the weeds in the front yard so there was an equal distribution of the stems among the yard. Later in the spring though, Dr. Betty then mows her lawn and interrupts the natural flow of the way things would be. This is a very simple explanation of why the biological environment is being affected. Another explanation could be that a type of weed poison that her or her neighbor is using is only meant to kill long stemmed weeds. Either way it is the introduction of something new into the environment which caused this uneven distributive effect.

6. Use what you have learned about energy transfer in food chains and the second law of thermodynamics to explain why it is an environmentally good choice to eat a plant based diet. Include the following terms in your answer: producer, herbivore, omnivore, trophic level, resources and energy

The transfer of energy is never 100% efficient. Energy is never created nor destroyed but its transfer can be inefficient. Animals in the first trophic level would be herbivores. Their consumption of plant matter provides the energy for the production of protein and the animals growth and maintenance. As a plant eater its source of energy is quite cast given the proper environment. An omnivore has increased diversity based on diet and can therefore occupy environments which would be inhospitable to a herbivore.

7. You have read that inorganic fertilizers contribute to water pollution and would like to make a switch from inorganic fertilizers to organic compost in your vegetable garden. A friend graciously gives you a truck load of his compost. As a good researcher and critical thinker you are not convinced that organic compost will yield the same results as the inorganic fertilizer you have used for years with good results. To draw your own conclusion based on scientific evidence you decide to conduct an experiment in your garden. State a good hypothesis, design an experiment (include test subjects, sample size, control(s), dependent and independent variables, type of data collected) and hypothetical results/conclusion. Does your conclusion support the hypothesis?

For my experiment I would start by creating two separate gardens, the first garden would be my control group which uses inorganic fertilizer. The second group would be my test group which would use organic fertilizer. I would create two separate gardens containing the same plants where I would test whether or not the garden with the organic fertilizer responded in the same way as the garden without the inorganic fertilizer. I would hypothesize that the garden with the organic fertilizer wouldn’t grow as good as the garden with the inorganic fertilizer. After several weeks I would test different vegetable sizes, colors, and overall health of all plants. My hypothetical conclusion would be that although not as good as the inorganic fertilizer the organic fertilizer still did a fantastic job. This would support my original hypothesis, but prove that organic fertilizer is a viable replacement for inorganic fertilizer.